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Lesson 2.  Using Links and Joins.

When constructing a statement or question in which two or more sentences are involved, the connecting words are as important as the links in a chain. It the link is weak, the chain will break: if the connecting word is weak, the sentence will not make sense. It is important, therefore, to understand the proper use of words such as and, but, although, because, and many more. Let us examine some of the commonest of these words and see how they are used.

 
And connects two or more simple sentences which are independent of each other, even though the subject matter may be related. Usually introduces additional information about the subject or general theme.
a She lives in Paris and writes books on psychology.
b He studied at Oxford and is an authority on Elizabethan literature.
c I am very fond of music and Beethoven is my favourite composer.
It is not necessary to repeat the subject if this is the same for both sentences (see a and b).
That introduces information dependent on the main sentence, and completes the theme of the sentence.
a I am very glad that Peter has passed his exam.
b My mother will be disappointed to hear that John won't be able to come for the weekend.
In these cases 'That' can be omitted if preferred
I am very glad Peter passed his exam.
But introduces a reservation about a preceding sentence.
a He will be coming to England in September but he won't be bringing his wife.
b She is going to America this summer, but she will only be staying for two weeks.
Or/ either ... or connects two alternatives.
a We can go by train or it may be possible to get a bus.
b He will either go to France to study or remain another year in England.
Because/as/ for/since introduces a reason or explanation, and answers the spoken or implied question 'Why?'
He will have to take his Diploma examination again in December because he failed it last June.
a John is moving to Edinburgh as he has been offered a better job there.
b I can't telephone him yet, for he never gets to the office before 10.30.
c I shall take plenty of warm clothes with me, since it is very cold in Scotland in the winter.
Although/ though/ even though shows that there was some problem affecting the main action which has been overcome or ignored (concession).
a She is going to Australia by plane, although she is terrified of flying.
b Of course you can borrow my tin-opener, though Pm not sure where I put it.
c The Browns are going to buy that house, even though the price is ridiculously high.
So introduces the result of a previous action.
a He didn't do any work, so he didn't pass his exam.
b We got up early, so we were able to catch the 8.30 train.
So that introduces the purpose of an action.
a John has lent us his records so that we can use them for the party.
b The Stevensons are buying a cottage in the country so that they can get away from London at weekends.
In case makes provision for a possible future situation.
a Take your umbrella in case it rains.
b I'm taking a book in case I have to wait a long time in the dentist's surgery.
Remember there is no Future Tense after in case.
If/whether/ whether ... or not/ so long as/ provided/ unless (neg.) introduce conditions on which the main action depends.
a He will come if he has time.
b He won't come unless you ask him.
c The children will have to come to the Zoo, whether they want to or not.
Remember there is no Future Tense after these words in conditional sentences.
If/whether/ whether ... or not can also be used to show uncertainty. In this case a Future Tens can be used after them.
a I don't know if he will be able to come.
b I don't know whether he will come by bus or car.
c I don't know whether he will come or not.

Time.  The linking words that follow introduce various ideas related to time.

 
When/as soon as/ until implies a time on which the action in the main sentence is dependent.
a He will come when he has finished his work.
b I wont write until I hear from you again.
c He will telephone as soon as he arrives.
Note: There is no Future Tense after time words such as when/as soon as/until except where when is used as a question word.
After introduces the first of two actions.
a After they had seen the film, they had dinner in a Chinese restaurant.
b Mr. Brown will write to you after he has considered your proposal.
Before introduces the second of two actions.
a Before you make any decision, please read this letter from the Council.
b I will give you my address before I leave for Paris.
Then indicates one action succeeding or resulting from another.
a We'll wash up, then we'll go to the cinema.
b Give me your address, then I can put it in my address book.
While joins two or more events happening at the same time (concurrence). A common use is with the Past Continuous.
a I shall be working in my office next week while you are lazing on the beach.
b The children were listening to the radio while their mother was cooking the dinner.
During indicates a period of time (duration).
a During the five years he spent at sea, he never once crossed the Atlantic.
b I met a great many interesting people during the time I was studying Art in Milan.
Since/ ever since links a definite time or event with a subsequent event or action. Commonly used in association with the Present Perfect.
a He hasn't spoken to her since they quarreled.
b I've lived in Vienna since I was a child.
c Peter hasn't seen Joan since he met her at the Browns' party last Christmas.
Where gives some information about the place where something occurs.
a He is going to Zermattfor his holiday where he hopes to get some good ski-ing.
b I always buy my cheesecake in Camberwell Road where there is a very good delicatessen.

 

Exercise 1.
Join the following sentences using the most appropriate linking word and making any changes that may be necessary. For example:
They are very happy. They haven't much money.
They are very happy although they haven't much money.

1. He is a famous pianist. He plays in concerts all over the world.
2. He has studied English for five years. He doesn't speak very good English.
3. They are going to America for their holiday. They want to see the Niagara Falls.
4. She is saving some money every week. She can go abroad for her holiday.
5. He will telephone me at once. His plane arrives at 6 p.m.
6. They are going to the State Gallery tomorrow. There is an exhibition of modem paintings there.
7. The old lady managed to climb the hill. She suffered from a weak heart.
8. I went to the opera in 1972. I haven't been again.
9. He gets up early every morning. He is never late for work.
10. It was raining. I was waiting for the bus.
11. He won't catch the train. He must hurry.
12. We will go to the zoo. We will fetch the children from school first.
13. I shall go to Italy by boat and train. I don't like flying.
14. Why don't we have a picnic tomorrow? Perhaps it will be a fine day.
15. I'd like to come swimming with you. I'm a poor swimmer.

Exercise 2.
Complete the following sentences.1. She is taking her driving test for the second time tomorrow but ..............................
2. They insisted on paying for my cinema ticket although ............................................
3. Hugo is very annoyed with his wife because ...........................................................
4. Bring your new records to the party so that ............................................................
5. I don't think I have eaten lobster since ....................................................................
6. Susan will be doing her homework while ................................................................
7. Mary hasn't been looking very well lately, so ...........................................................
8. We are planning to go to a market on Saturday where ............................................
9. John won't be able to come tomorrow unless ..........................................................
10. Don't forget to let me know as soon as .................................................................
11. Susannah Brown is appearing in London next week, then ......................................
12. They will arrange the date of their wedding when ..................................................
13. They will be in a position to make a firm offer for the property after .....................
14. I'm taking some sandwiches with me on the train in case ......................................

Exercise 3.
Fill the blanks in the following account with appropriate linking words.

Fans of the jazz group Oranges and Lemons will be delighted to learn ......... (1) their favourites will be coming to London .........(2) they have completed their tour of the Midlands. They will be giving four performances at the Queen Anne Hall .........(3) this will be their first appearance .........(4) their sensational success in the sixties ........ .(5) the enthusiasm of the fans amounted to such frenzy several people were injured. It seems that .........(6) the Oranges and Lemons were attempting to make themselves heard on stage, their fans were whistling and shouting in chorus ......... .........(7) the group were obliged to retire .........(8) the police arrived to restore order. .........(9) of the disorderly scenes at this concert, the police will be putting up crush barriers at the entrances to the hall this time. .........(10) there is any unpleasantness, .........(11) the safety of the group appears to be in danger, .........(12) the police have powers to cancel the concert immediately. The Oranges and Lemons say they are confident there will be no trouble, .........(13) they are not taking any chances. The group will be wearing bullet-proof vests, .........(14) any over-excited fans who start throwing real oranges and lemons at their idols may be disappointed at the group's reaction. 'Ours is a family show,' said Jeff Orange, the lead guitarist, 'we aim to hold a performance in a place .........(15) Mum and Dad can safely take the family for an evening out.' Well, it takes all sorts to make a family, .........(16) there's no doubt the Oranges and Lemons will attract a lot of people, ......... ......... (17) they may not all be related. .........(18) the excitement has died down, it will be possible to assess their contribution to the jazz scene. .........(19) they still have a strong following, they are no longer in the top rank, .........(20) it would be as well not to make any judgment on this concert alone.

Exercise 4.
Join the following pairs of sentences to make one complete sentence.

1. Dick Sharp is a famous footballer. He only started to play football at 25.
2. He was putting on weight. His doctor advised him to take more exercise.
3. He will be playing for Red Rovers tomorrow. He injured an ankle in his last match.
4. He is doing some special training. He will be in good condition for the match.
5. He joined the Red Rovers in 1973. He has never missed a match.
6. The spectators are sure to cheer. They see him come on to the field.
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