UNIT 6. Population.
Read this paragraph from Text A.
The implication for 'development' and 'fertility'.
All the above can be summarised by saving that the effect of social and economic progress in lowering fertility in developing countries will be greatest where the majority of the population and especially the very poor share in its benefits. Specifically, birth rates among the very poor are likely to fall where there is: ...
a. Where do you think this text occurs?
1. at the beginning of a chapter
2. at the middle or end of a chapter
b. Which of these underlined words in the text has the same meaning as 'birth rate'?
c. What does 'fertility' mean within this context?
1. the number of people
2. the number of children
3. the number of births in a year in relation to the total population
d. What do you think the writer will do immediately after the words 'Specifically, birth rates among the very poor are likely to decline where there is: . . .'?
1. describe the benefits of development
2. list the conditions for a decline in fertility among the poorest
3. explain why the birth rate falls in developed countries.
|CLUES:||a. Look at Text A, 1st sentence.|
b. Check this answer when you have done c.
c. Remember that b asked about the meaning of 'birth rate'.
d. Look at Text A.
Now read the complete text.
The Implications for 'development' and 'fertility'.
All the above can be summarised by saying that the effect of social and economic progress in lowering fertility in developing countries will be greatest where the majority of the population and especially the very poor share in its benefits. Specifically, birth rates among the very poor are likely to fall where there is: ....
• an increase in the education of women and a consequent change in their role and values;
• an increase in female non-agricultural wage employment opportunities which raises the price or 'cost' of their traditional child-rearing activities;
• a rise in family income levels through the increased direct employment and earnings of husband and wife and/or through the redistribution of income and assets from rich to poor;
• a reduction in infant mortality through expanded public health programmes and better nutritional status for both parent and child;
• development of old age and other social security systems outside the extended family network to reduce the economic dependence of parents on their offspring.
Todaro. M.P. Economics for a Developing World, Longman, 1977.
The phrases on the left come from Text A. Which of the phrases on the right is closest in meaning within the context?
|a. role|| ||1. social activities|
|b. infant mortality||1. the total number of deaths in a year|
2. the number of young children dying in a year
3. the number of deaths from malnutrition (i.e. from an inadequate diet)
|c. better nutritional status||1. a better social position|
2. a longer age
3. a better diet (i.e. choice of food)
|d. offspring||1. dependents|
|CLUES:||a. Look at the example given in the focus section below.|
b. What is an infant?
c. Remember that 'status' does not always mean social position.
d. Notice the word 'parents' at the end of Text A. Look at Exercise 3, e.
Focus: Cause and result.
Look at this sentence.
The education of women causes social change.
It can be written in other ways:
The education of women results in social change
orThe education of women gives rise to social change.
or The education of women brings about social change.
The information given in these examples is shown by this diagram:
The education of women
The result is sometimes expressed before the cause.
Social change is caused by the education of women.
or Social change results from the education of women.
or Social change is brought about by the education of women.
or Social change is a consequence of the education of women.
or Social change is an effect of the education of women.
or Social change arises from the education of women.
The information given in these examples is shown by this diagram:
The education of women
Match each cause below with the correct result.
|a. A decrease in the birth rate|| ||1. and as a result they prefer not to stay at home rearing large numbers of children.|
|b. Developments in birth-control techniques||2. probably results from social and economic factors.|
|c. Female education||3. has brought about widespread female employment.|
|d. The decision by a couple to delay their child rearing||4. have the effect that it is now possible to plan the size and timing of a family.|
|e. In developed economies, women can find employment||5. may be a consequence of their wish for a higher standard of living in the first years of marriage.|
|CLUES:||Your answers to Exercise 4 should help you.|
If you are working on your own, complete passage 1 with the phrases given after it. If you are working with a friend, one of you complete passage 1 and the other complete passage 2. Write the completed passages in your notebook.
If married women (a) ______, they can look for interesting work outside the home and (b) ______ they may decide that they do not wish to be restricted by the need (c) ______.
In some countries, (d) ______ may lead to a decrease (e) ______. A desire for a high standard of living in the first years of marriage may mean that a couple (f) ______. The use of birth-control techniques makes it possible for (g) ______ of their family.
PASSAGE 1 PHRASES.
1. as a result
2. them to plan the size and timing
3. social and economic factors
4. are educated
5. to care for a large number of children
6. in the birth rate
7. delay their child rearing.
|CLUES:||If you are working on your own, check your answer by completing passage 2. But be careful! The two passages are slightly different.|
In some countries, a decrease in fertility (h) ______ economic and social development. For instance, a couple may decide to delay their breeding in order that (i) ______ in the first years of marriage. The number of children (j)______ can be planned (k) ______ techniques.
Educated (l) ______ might prefer to go out to work instead of (m) ______, and so may decide against having (n) ______.
PASSAGE 2 PHRASES.
1. married women
2. may result from
3. a large number of children
4. they can enjoy a high standard of living
5. and the time between births
6. being restricted to their homes
7. as a consequence of the use of birth-control.
|CLUES:||Compare the completed passages 1 and 2. But be careful! The two passages are slightly different.|
The paragraphs in passages1 and 2 are differently ordered. Decide which paragraph should come first, and which passage is best.
|CLUES:||Which paragraph starts with a general statement about the decrease in fertility, and which gives an example? Remember that examples usually follow general statements.|
In your notebook, complete these diagrams, using arrows. The arrows must show the direction of the cause and fault relationship. The first two diagrams have been completed for you.
a. If natural resources are plentiful, then the economy will expand as a result.
|plentiful natural resources|
b. Arising from the fact that resources are limited in India, many people go hungry.
|resources limited in India|| |
c. The economy of nineteenth-century America benefitted as a direct result of the increase in population caused by immigration (people moving into the country).
|growth of American economy|| || |
d. If women are given greater opportunities for employment in the non-agricultural sector, they will be motivated to work away from home. Hence, fewer resources will be invested in bringing up children, and so the birth rate will fall.
|increased cost of time|
spent in child rearing
for female employment
e. If a couple are forced to depend on their children and grandchildren in their old age, it is in their economic interests to produce a large family. However, if the state offers old age pensions, it follows that the need to produce offspring is reduced.
|development of social|
|lessening of dependence|
on extended family
f. The developing countries lack capital for investment in industry and so manufactured goods are few in number and of poor quality, and are unlikely to tempt the foreign buyer. Owing to overseas sales being so slight, undercapitalized industry is unable to develop. And so the vicious circle is perpetuated.
|lack of investment capital|
|low standard manufactured goods|
g. If both husband and wife are employed the family income will increase and this will have the effect of reducing the birth rate. And in ideal circumstances, so will a new sharing-out of wealth between the social classes.
|rise in income from increased|
employment of household
|redistribution of national|
income and assets
h. The quantity that is produced of a certain commodity is consequential upon a number of factors. These include the prices of factors of production (land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship). For instance, the price of wheat is largely determined by the price of agricultural land.
|prices of factors of production|
(e.g. price of land)
|quantity produced of a|
commodity (e.g. wheat)
i. Per capita income (i.e. the income of each member of a society calculated as an average) is influenced by the size of population, and decreases when there is either overpopulation or underpopulation. Per capita income is at its highest when the size of the population is optimal; that is, when it is best suited to the techniques of production employed in the society.
|optimally efficient economy|
|CLUES:||c. What did immigration cause? What did the population increase cause?|
d. What will increased opportunities for female employment cause? What will decreased fertility be the result of?
e. A development of the social security system will lead to what?
f. What is the immediate (first) consequence of a lack of investment capital? Notice the last sentence; 'And so the vicious circle is perpetuated' (continued endlessly).
g. What does a rise in household income lead to?
h. What do the prices of factors of production effect?
i. What are the causes of an inefficient economy? What does an efficient economy result from?
Read this short paragraphs and answer the questions.
a. Some countries are overpopulated. In modern India, the fertility rate exceeds the mortality rate, and the very scarce capital resources are unable to support the additional population. This leads to ...
Which of these sentences do you think fits best after the words 'This leads to ...'?
1. capital resources being inadequate to support the increased population.
2. the standard of living of the whole community being raised.
3. the standard of living of the whole community being kept down or even lowered.
b. The quantity of population directly affects the extent to which the available economic factors are employed. Therefore, ...
Which of these sentences fits best after the word 'Therefore, ...'?
1. it has no influence on the level of economic growth.
2. the exploitation of these factors is influenced by the quantity of the population.
3. it affects the level of economic growth.
c. There is a direct relationship between the size of the population and the level of economic development. If the population is either too low or too high, the available economic factors are not properly exploited. As a result, . . .
Which of these sentences fits best after the words 'As a result,. . .'?
1. the economy is only able to develop if the government takes appropriate action to increase or decrease the population.
2. the factors are not made proper use of.
3. the economy develops whether or not the government takes appropriate action to increase or decrease the population.
|CLUES:||a. Notice that 1 has about the same meaning as the last half of the last sentence in the paragraph ('. . . the very scarce resources are unable to support the additional population.') Therefore it does not state a result. Look at Text B last paragraph.|
b. Notice that 2 has about the same meaning as the sentence given ('The quantity of population directly affects the extent to which the available economic factors are employed.') So does it state a result? Look at Text B third paragraph.
c. Notice that 2 has about the same meaning as the last half of the last sentence in the paragraph ('. . . the available factors are not properly exploited.') Look at Text B third paragraph.
Population and economic growth.
Some countries are overpopulated. In modem India, the fertility rate exceeds the mortality rate, and the very scarce capital resources are unable to support the additional population. Many young children die for want of food and medical attention. And very few of those who survive receive satisfactory education. So the skilled workforce is relatively small. This leads to the per capita income of the whole population being kept down or even lowered.
On the other hand, some countries do not have sufficient populations to take full advantage of their economic potential, and so the immigration of other peoples is encouraged.
For instance, the governments of nineteenth-century America encouraged immigration from Europe. The abundant natural resources and cheap land presented opportunities for economic expansion, and because the European newcomers included many skilled workers capable of taking full advantage of these conditions the population increase led to rapid economic growth.
These examples indicate that the quantity of population directly affects the level of exploitation that can be made of available economic factors, and therefore affects the level of economic growth. If the population is either too low, or too high, the available factors are not properly exploited. And so the economy is only able to develop if the government takes appropriate action to increase, or decrease the population.
The importance that economic factors have for economic growth is obvious; for instance, it is clear that an economy benefits from supplies of minerals, capital, and good land, and suffers if these resources are absent. But the importance of the quantity of the working population may be far less obvious. Nevertheless, an economy can only achieve optimal growth if the population is optimal.
The phrases on the left come from Text B. Which of the phrases on the right is closest in meaning within the context?
|a. per capita income|| ||1. the total income of the society|
2. the average income of all members of the society
3. an individual's income
|b. an economy can only achieve optimal growth if the population is optimal||1. an economy can only grow fast if the population increases rapidly|
2. an economy can only develop to its full potential if the population is the right number to make best use of the techniques of production
3. an economy can only develop to its full potential if the population increases rapidly.
|CLUES:||a. Look at Exercise 5, i.|
The diagram shows how the living standards of a population are affected by the size of the population. All economic resources are assumed to be constant. (This means that the principle of ceteris paribus applies.)
Complete the blanks with the words given below.
e. When is per capita income highest?
1. When the population is optimal
2. When the populations is highest
f. Which is more important to the growth of a country's economy?
1. the size of the population
2. the size of the labour force (i.e. the working population)
g. In your notebooks, draw a diagram that shows the living standards of a population. This diagram must show that when the optimal population is 25,000,000, per capita income is 3,000 per.annum. What is the approximate per capita income when the population is 10,000,000?
|CLUES:||a,b,c,d. Look at Text C, the diagram.|
e. In the diagram, the population a is highest (at (X). Are living standards at their highest or are they in decline?
f. Does the economy benefit if a majority of the population are too sick, too old, or too badly educated to contribute to the labour force? (Look at the example of India, Text B).
g. Discuss your diagram with your teacher or your friends.
The quantity of labour.
The size of a county's population and the extent of participation in the labour force are important in and of themselves, not merely because they affect the quantity of a factor of production. For this reason, it is less common to speak of the quantity of people available for work as affecting growth than to speak of the quantity of capital or iron ore in this way.
But, clearly, for any given state of knowledge and supplies of other factors of production, the size of the population can affect the level of output of capital. Every child born has both a mouth and a pair of hands, and, on average, it is perfectly possible to speak of overpopulated and underpopulated economies, depending on whether the contribution to production of additional people would raise or lower the level of per capita income.
The diagram relates population to per capita income and illustrates a case in which there is an optimal population for which living standards are at a maximum. The curve is drawn in the shape illustrated because resources and knowledge are assumed constant at any moment in time and alternative populations are assumed to be exploiting them. After a certain size, the pressure of more and more population applying given techniques to a given quantity of resources will force diminishing returns into operation. Once output does not grow in proportion to additional population, output per person must fall.
Many countries have had conscious policies aimed at changing the size of their populations. America in the nineteenth century sought immigrants, as did Australia in the 1950s and 1960s. ...
All of these activities bespeak fear of insufficient population, although the motives are not purely economic in every case. In contrast, many of the less developed countries in South America and Asia are trying to limit population growth. One of the most dramatic and controversial of the recent programmes of this sort has been the mass sterilization of many males In India.
Lipsey R.G. An Introduction to Positive Economics (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965). English Language Book Society, 5th edition, 1979.
The sentences below give the ideas discussed both in Text B and Text C but in a different order. Put them in the correct order for each text.
a. Some countries are underpopulated and as a result their economies are not as successful as they could be.
b. The size of the population affects the success of the economy and per capita income.
c. Some countries are overpopulated and as a result their economies are not as successful as they could be.
d. The importance of the size of population is less apparent than the importance of economic factors.
|CLUES:||Look at Text B.|
Look at Text C.