[an error occurred while processing this directive]

TRADING WORDS
Presentation Pack.

GIVING A PRESENTATION CAN BE ONE OF THE MOST DIFFICULT TASKS FOR ANYONE IN BUSINESS.
WHEN YOU HAVE TO DO IT IN A LANGUAGE THAT IS NOT YOUR OWN, IT CAN BECOME A NIGHTMARE!
THIS PACK MIGHT HELP YOU TO GET A GOOD NIGHT'S SLEEP.
GOOD LUCK, SWEET DREAMS AND HAPPY PRESENTATIONS!

This pack, and the radio series it is designed to accompany, was prepared with the assistance of Specialist Language Services, York.

GIVING A PRESENTATION:
There are really no "rules" for giving presentations - some of the most successful presentations succeed because they break all of the rules and so are remembered by the audience. The language in this pack is intended to help you to find the appropriate language for different areas of your presentation. By studying the pack and listening to the radio series, you should find it easier to organise and introduce your information in a way that your audience will find easy to digest.

A few general points worth considering:

The audience want you to do well!
What is last said is best remembered!
Say what you're going to say (The introduction)
Say it (The main body of the presentation)
And say it again! (The conclusion).

GREETINGS:
Formal
    At home - Welcome to our company.
        I'm pleased to be able to welcome you to our company ...
        I'd like to thank you for coming.
        May I take this opportunity of thanking you for coming?
    Away - I'm delighted/pleased/glad to have the opportunity to present/of making this presentation ...
        I'm grateful for the opportunity to present ...
        I'd like to thank you for inviting/asking me/giving me the chance to ...
        Good morning/afternoon/evening ladies and gentlemen.
        It's my pleasant duty today to ...
        I've been asked to ...
Informal
        I'm glad you could all get here ...
        I'm glad to see so many people here.
        It's great to be back here.
        Hello again everybody. Thank you for being on time/making the effort to come today.
        Welcome to X Part II.
        Right then/ let's make a start shall we?

DEALING WITH QUESTIONS:
I'll be pleased to answer any questions you may have at the end of the presentation.
Please can you save your questions till the end?
If you have any questions, I'll be pleased to answer them at the end of the presentation.
There'll be time at the end of the presentation to answer your questions - so please feel free to ask me anything then.
Don't hesitate to interrupt if you have a question.
Please feel free to interrupt me at any time.
Please stop me if you have any questions.
If you need clarification on any point, you're welcome to ask questions at any time.
Can I come back to that point later?
I'll be coming to that point in a minute.
That's a tricky question.
I'm afraid there's no easy answer to that one ...
Yes, that's a very good point.
Perhaps we could leave that point until the questions at the end of the presentation.
I think I said that I would answer questions at the end of the presentation - perhaps you wouldn't mind waiting until then.
I think we have time for just one more question.

INTRODUCING A SUBJECT:
The subject of my presentation is ...
I shall be speaking today about ...
My presentation concerns ...
I'd like to say something about ...
Today's topic is ...
I shall be offering a brief analysis of ...
The main area that I intend to cover in this presentation is ...

POSSIBLE OPENING REMARKS:
I'd like to start by saying ...
Perhaps I could begin by ...
I'd like to begin with a brief outline of the background ...

TIME SETTING:
I shall be speaking for about ten minutes ...
My presentation will last for about ten minutes ...
I won't take up more than ten minutes of your time ...
I don't intend to speak for longer than ten minutes ...
I know that time is short, so I intend to keep this brief ...
During the next ten minutes, I shall ...
I have a lot to cram into the next ten minutes, so I'd better make a start ...

SELLING THE PRESENTATION (WHAT'S IN IT FOR YOUR AUDIENCE):
I'm going to be speaking about something that is vitally important to all of us ...
My presentation will help solve a problem that has puzzled people for years ...
At the end of this presentation you will understand why this company has been so successful for so long ...
I'm going to be talking about a product that could double your profit margins ...
The next ten minutes will change your attitude to sales and marketing ...
Over the next ten minutes you are going to hear about something that will change the way your companies operate ...
By the end of this presentation you will know all there is to know about ...

REPHRASING:
Put in another way ...
Let me put that another way ...
To put that in another way ...
In other words ...
Alternatively you could say that ...
Another way of saying it ...
To put it more bluntly/more concisely ...
If I can rephrase that ...
I'll just say that again - in English!

CLARIFICATION:
I think I'll just rephrase that ...
I'll try and put that more clearly/ more simply.
Just in case that wasn't clear, I'll rephrase it.
Don't misunderstand me, what I mean is ...
I'll just repeat that to make it clear.
It's important not to confuse/to make a distinction between/to distinguish between ...
This is not to say that ...

GOING INTO DETAIL:
More specifically.
To take one specific aspect of this ...
Let's focus on one aspect of this ...
One point bears closer examination ...
If we can concentrate on one aspect of this for a moment ...
There is one detail that is worth focusing on ...
I think it's/we felt it was worth looking at this in a little more detail and so ...
Let's go into this in more detail.
Upon closer examination/investigation.
If we make an in-depth study of this.
Getting down to the nuts and bolts of the thing.

GENERALISATION:
Broadly/generally speaking.
With a few exceptions/without exception.
In general. By and large. On the whole. Overall.
As a rule of thumb.
As a (general) rule. It is generally accepted that ...
Usually/often/frequently it is the case that ...

MOVING FROM THE GENERAL TO THE SPECIFIC:
From that general rule, we can now look at a specific example.
Time to stop generalising and start being precise.
What specific points can be drawn from these general conclusions?

BRIDGING TWO POINTS:
Having dealt with A, I now want to move on to B.
Having discussed A, we can see that ... B.
One point that follows from A is that ... B.
From A, it follows that ... B; following on from that.
You may have noticed that in A, now in B.
As a consequence of A ... , B ...
Although in A we showed ..., in B ...
Despite what we said in A, ... B ....
In A we said ..., on the other hand, in B ...
One exception to A is ... B.
... and this leads us to ...
... which brings me to my next point.
Which leads me nicely into my next topic.
So much for A, let's look at B.
That covers A, so what about B?
If we're all happy with that, where do we go from here?
As regards (X), however, the situation is somewhat different.

Now, quite distinct from A, we have B. Here ...
        - ing: turning to/moving over to ...
        - to: to move now to ...
        - if: if I now turn to ...
        - let's: let's have a look at ...

PROVIDING A FRAMEWORK (SIGNPOSTING):
- There are five main aspects to this topic (... the first, ... the second, ... a third, ... another, ...the final).
- I'm going to examine these topics in the following order, (... first, ... next, ... after that/ ... finally).
- I've divided my talk in to five parts ...
- I will deal with these topics in chronological order ...
- I'm going to start with a general overview and then focus on this particular problem (... in general, ... more particularly).
- I want to start with this particular topic, and then draw some more general conclusions from it (... specifically, ... in a wider context).
- There are (a number of) factors that may affect ...
- We have to take into account in any discussion of this subject, the following considerations.
- We all ought to be aware of the following points.

INTRODUCING A POINT:
The most important point to make is ...
My first point it ...
Another aspect to bear in mind is ...
It must also be remembered that ...
We mustn't forget that ...
Also, (don't forget that/remember that).
Now for something completely different ...
This brings me to ...
Oh, and another thing ...
(See also SIGNPOSTING AND BRIDGING)

ENDING A POINT:
That is all I want to say about his point ...
This concludes what I want to say about ...
... which concludes what I want to say about ...
That wraps up that point ...
That covers that area ...
So it can be seen that ...
So we can see that ...
So I've shown that ...
In conclusion then, ...
To conclude this point then, ...
There's nothing left to say on this point, I think, so ...
I think that's covered that one, so ...
That, then, was ...

EXAMPLES:
A good example (of this) is ...
... for example ...
For instance ...
E.g. ...
As an example (of this) ...
To take an example ...
To illustrate this ...
By way of an example ...
An illustration of this is ...
We can illustrate this by ...
We can demonstrate/show this by ...
This can be seen in the following (illustration).
Take X, for example.
Imagine ...
How does this work in practice?

ADDING A (MINOR) POINT:
In this context it is worth mentioning ...
As an extension of this ...
It's also true that ...
One further point to add is ...
If I can digress for a moment.
Perhaps I might also mention that ...
As an afterthought, (how what) about ...
I'll just touch on one other point in passing ...
Before we leave this subject, it's worth saying that ...

RETURNING TO THE MAIN THEME:
... but this is taking us away from the main theme ...
To return to the main point/subject.
Picking up where we left off.
As I was saying before that digression/interruption.
To continue the main discussion ...
Going back to what I was saying ...
I mentioned earlier ...

GOING BACK TO AN EARLIER POINT:
As I said earlier/before ...
You will recall that earlier I said ...
You may have been wondering why I said ...
When I was talking about this point earlier I said ...
In my introduction I said ...
Five minutes ago I said ...
You may have noticed that ...
I mentioned earlier that ...
Let me pick up a reference made earlier to ...

INTRODUCING OVERHEADS/MALL CHARTS ETC. :
Before
    If we look at this ... we can see ...
    ... as we will see in a moment on this overhead.
    This is shown in d-diagrammatic form on this overhead
    This point can be made more clearly in visual form.
    I have prepared an overhead to illustrate this ...
    I'll just put this on the overhead ...
    I think perhaps you can see this more clearly on the overhead ...
    Let's have a look at this transparency.
During display time
    This overhead shows ...
    We can see on this overhead that ...
    Notice here that ...
    The figures in red indicate/show/stand for ...

COLLOQUIAL 'SOFTENERS' :

Right then ...I think ...
That, then is ...You know, ...
Now ...Look ...
To move now to ...You see ...
As you know ...For what it's worth ...
Actually ...As it happens.
In fact ...After all, ...
Incidentally ...Well, ...
By the way, ...Perhaps, ...
Of course ...It might be better ...
Just (as in I'll just touch on this for a moment).

VARIOUS APOLOGIES:
I'm sorry if this is too simple for some of you.
I'm sorry if this seems a little over-technical.
I'm sorry to have gone on for so long.
I'm sorry if I have laboured the point.
I'm sorry if this seems a bit superficial.
I'm sorry if my English is a little difficult to understand.
* I'm sorry I don't know the exact word for this in English.
I'm sorry ... could you just bear with me for a moment while I check my notes.
I'm sorry. I'll just start that again.
* Hesitating:
What was the word again?
Now, what's the name again in English?
NB: It should be mentioned that apologies are not really to be advised as they show uncertainty and infect the listeners.

VOCABULARY EXTENSION:

SUBJECT- topic, issue, question, discussion, argument
PRESENTATION- talk, outline, summary, analysis
STEP- stage, development, move, section
POINT- aspect, feature, factor
IMPORTANT- vital, significant critical, serious, crucial, main
GOOD- interesting, excellent, impressive, successful
BAD- dreadful, terrible, appalling, disappointing, severe
DISCUSS - deal with, examine, analyse
NOW- currently
SOON- presently
THE POSSIBILITY - the opportunity

SUMMARISING:
To summarise ...
Briefly, then ...
We have seen that ...
The main points, therefore, are ...
If I can summarise what I have said (so far) ...
If we can take stock for a moment ...
Thus we can see ...
It must now be clear that ...
I've attempted to explain here that ...
So, to sum up: ...
To recap, then, ...

CLOSING:
In conclusion, I'd like to ...
I'd like to finish by ...
Finally ...
By way of conclusion ...
I hope I have made myself understood.
I hope you have found this useful.
I hope this has given you some idea/clear idea/an outline of ...
Classic Trio:
1. That, then was all I had to say on ...
2. I hope I've managed to give you a clearer picture of ...
3. If there are any questions, I'd be delighted to ...

Thank you for your attention ...
You have been a very attentive audience - thank you.
Let's break for a coffee at this point.
I'm afraid that the clock is against us, so we had better stop here.

[an error occurred while processing this directive]